ABCD Favorite References

WHO Screening Criteria 1

Validation of Vision Screening 2

AAP Guidelines 3, 4

Reviews 5, 6

Effective Amblyopia Reduction 7-9

Cost 10-14

Bruckner Test 15, 16

Photoscreeners 17-24

Regional Screening Efforts 25-28

ABCD 10, 24, 29-33


1.         Wilson J, Junger G. Principles and practice of screening for disease. Public Health paper No. 34. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1968.

2.         Donahue S, Arnold R, Ruben JB. Preschool vision screening: What should we be detecting and how should we report it?  Uniform guidelines for reporting results from studies of preschool vision screening. J AAPOS. 2003;7(5):314-315.

3.         Swanson J. Eye examination in infants, children and young adults by pediatricians: AAP Policy Statement. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(4):860-865.

4.         Swanson J, Committee on practice and ambulatory medicine -. Use of photoscreening for children's vision screening (AAP Policy Statement). Pediatrics. 2002;109(3):524-525.

5.         Simons K. Amblyopia characterization, treatment and prophylaxis. Surv Ophthalmol. 2005;50(2):123-166.

6.         Simons K. Preschool vision screening: Rationale, methodology and outcome. Survey of Ophthalmology. 1996;41(1):3-30.

7.         Eibschitz-Tsimhoni M, Friedman T, Naor J, Eibschitz N, Friedman Z. Early screening for amblyogenic risk factors lowers the prevalence and severity of amblyopia. J AAPOS. 2000;4(4):194-199.

8.         Kvarnstrom G, Jakobsson P, Lennerstrand G. Screening for visual and ocular disorders in children, evaluation of the system in Sweden. Acta Paediatr. 1998;87(11):1173-1179.

9.         Williams C, Northstone K, Harrad RA, Sparrow JM, Harvey I. Amblyopia treatment outcomes after screening before or at age 3 years: follow up from randomised trial. BMJ. 2002;324(7353):1549.

10.       Arnold RW, Armitage MD, Gionet EG, et al. The cost and yield of photoscreening: Impact of photoscreening on overall pediatric ophthalmic costs. JPOS. 2005;42(2):103-111.

11.       Beauchamp G, Bane M, Stager D, Berry P, Wright W. A value analysis model applied to the management of amblyopia. Tr Am Ophth Soc. 1999;97:349-372.

12.       Joish V, Malone DC, Miller JM. A cost-benefit analysis of vision screening methods for preschoolers and school -age children. J AAPOS. 2003;7(4):283-290.

13.       Ruben JB. Mutiny over the amblyopia bounty. Argus. 1997;2(4):8.

14.       White A. Costs and Benefits of Comprehensive Eye Exams. Abt Associates. Available at: Accessed 10/28/04, 2004.

15.       Tongue A, Cibis G. Bruckner test. Ophthalmol. 1981;88:1041-1044.

16.       Arnold RW. Vision Screening in Alaska: Experience with Enhanced Brčckner Test. Alaska Med. 1993;35(2):204-208.

17.       Bobier W. *Quantitative photorefraction using an off-center flash source. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1988;65:962-971.

18.       Bobier WR, Braddick OJ. Eccentric photorefraction: optical analysis and empirical measures. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. Sep 1985;62(9):614-620.

19.       Freedman H, Preston K. Polaroid photoscreening for amblyogenic factors.  An improved technology. Ophthalmol. 1992;99:1785-1795.

20.       Granet D, Hoover A, Smith A, Brown S, Bartsch D-U, Brody B. A new objective digital computerized vision screening system. JPOS. 1999;36(5):251-256.

21.       Kennedy R, Thomas D. Evaluation of the iScreen digital screening system for amblyogenic factors. Can J Ophthalmol. 2000;35(5):258-262.

22.       Kovtoun TA, Arnold RW. Calibration of photoscreeners for threshold contact- induced hyperopic anisometropia: Introduction of the JVC photoscreeners. JPOS. 2004;41(3):150-158.

23.       Ottar WL, Scott WE, Holgado SI. Photoscreening for amblyogenic factors. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1995;32:289-295.

24.       Arnold RW, Arnold AW, Stark L, Arnold KK, Leman RE, Armitage MD. Amblyopia detection by camera (ADBC): Gateway to portable, inexpensive, vision screening. Alaska Med. September/October 2004 2004;46(3):63-72.

25.       LaRoche GR. Amblyopia: detection, prevention, and rehabilitation. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. Oct 2001;12(5):363-367.

26.       Donahue SP, Arnold RW, Granet D, Wagner R. Pediatric Photoscreening: Eye to Eye. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. Mar-Apr 2004;41(2):72-76.

27.       Donahue SP, Baker JD, Scott WE, et al. Lions Clubs Foundation Core Four photoscreening: Validation results from 17 programs. Paper presented at: AAPOS Annual Meeting; March 12, 2005, 2005; Orlando, Florida.

28.       Donahue SP, Johnson TM, Leonard-Martin TC. Screening for amblyogenic factors using a volunteer lay network and the MTI photoscreener. Initial results from 15,000 preschool children in a statewide effort. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(9):1637-1644; discussion 1645-1636.

29.       Arnold RW. Highly specific photoscreening at the Alaska State Fair: Valid Alaska Blind Child Discovery photoscreening and interpretation. Alaska Med. April/May/June 2003 2003;45(2):34-40.

30.       Arnold RW. Pseudo-false positive eye/vision photoscreening due to accommodative insufficiency.  A serendipitous benefit for poor readers? Binoc Vis and Strabismus Quart. Spring-Fall 2004;19(2):75-80.

31.       Arnold RW, Gionet E, Jastrzebski A, Kovtoun T, Armitage M, Coon L. The Alaska Blind Child Discovery project: Rationale, Methods and Results of 4000 screenings. Alaska Med. 2000;42:58-72.

32.       Arnold RW, Sitenga G. The detection of congenital glaucoma by photoscreen interpretation. Alaska Med. 2000;42(3):73-77.

33.       Lang DM, Arnold AW, Leman RE, Arnold RW. Photoscreening, remote autorefraction and patched acuity testing in the Koyukon region of Alaska. Alaska Med. 2004;47:(submitted).


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